Natural gas occurs naturally from the overlaying of dead organisms along rock, soil and ocean layers for hundreds of millions of years. During that period of time, natural changes occur from heat and pressure from the Earth’s crust turning the dead organisms into natural gas which can be utilized by humans. Natural gas is the most suitable gas to use for the present day up until the future. Not only is natural gas used as energy for our everyday lives, but it is also an environmental friendly source of energy. Natural gas generates both heat and light and therefore is used as fuel for the commuting and logistics sector, the industrial sector, the agricultural sector, the initial substance for the petrochemical industry and even in general cooling systems. Natural gas is normally composed of methane, mainly consisting up of more than 70%. These gases are all hydrocarbon compounds. For full use of gas resources and its hydrocarbon properties, the gases must be separated since natural gases do not compose of solely hydrocarbons, but other gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfite, nitrogen and water etc. These compounds are separable when processed at natural gas separation plants. The separate gases may be further used in many ways.
Mother Stations are places where NGV is manufactured from increasing the pressure from the pipeline and pressure distributing the gases to the trucks which will transport the gases to Daughter Stations. Thailand has no pipelines that controls and covers the whole country, or the Mother to Daughter Station system (The system that distributes gas directly from Mother to Daughter Stations)
Conventional Stations are stations that receive natural gas directly from the pipes. Since gases flow at all times, conventional stations therefore must be situated on the natural gas pipeline to ensure that NGV may be directly serviced to consumers.
Daughter Stations are stations that are far from the natural gas pipeline and therefore require trucks or vehicles to deliver the NGV from Conventional Stations. This causes limitations such as certain periods of NGV shortage in delivery which may not be able to respond to the consumer’s needs straight away causing slight delays.
Since Thailand has 2 natural gas sources; from Thailand and from Myanmar, which has different temperatures and Wobbe Index figures, this had affected vehicles that use NGV. The Department of Energy Businesses declared an NGV standard both in specifications and quality for vehicles and has led to the process of natural gas from both sources to undergo improvements to change the temperatures, as declared by the Department of Energy Business.
iCNG is the result from which the Company had brought together the methods of land transporting natural gases for NGV service stations applied with the transporting natural gases for the industrial sector. In reality, more than 90% of industrial plants and factories are situated outside and far away from the pipeline.
The Pressure Reduction System (PRS) is an innovation by the Company’s professional engineer. Its duty is to reduce the pressure of natural gas from the delivery pressure rate to the normally used pressure rate of each plant, which has separate demands. This system is a sole intellectual property of Scan Inter (Public) Company Limited.
NGV is natural gas (NG) which has its quality and temperature controlled at a number appropriate for usage in vehicles that is equipped with NGV within Thailand. This differs from CNG which is a natural gas received directly from gas separation plants without controlling its temperature. CNG will be used directly in machines in electricity plants and plants with engineers who closely control the rate of gas distribution at all times.
From the NGV price float policy, which is priced referenced from the past prices of crude oil, NGV prices shall decrease after the oil price has lowered. However, on the opposite side, if oil prices increase, so will NGV prices which rise afterwards at a similar percentage at a long term. From the difference in oil price when compared to the NGV price, a clear difference may be noticed from the NGV price float policy as mentioned. The SCN executives therefore are confident that NGV shall remain the most economic fuel type for vehicles in Thailand.
The change of world oil price directly affects the Spot Price of oil at Singapore. Since Singapore is the hub, the center of oil trade within the Asian region, therefore the crude oil price at Singapore has been used as the standard of price specification of the oil retail price within the country. The CNG price in Thailand has a structure connected to the price of crude oil in Singapore as well. The fluctuation will be in the same direction, but the CNG structure price that references to the average price of the latest 3 months in Singapore results in only small changes.
The distribution of natural gas starts from increasing the pressure and compressing the gas into the trucks from the Mother Station at Samkhok, which has the gas weight of approximately 3,000 - 4,000 kg/vehicle to deliver to the Daughter Stations or in other regions according to the command of PTT’s gas demand. Normally the distance for delivering gas to and fro is 100 km, with the majority destination places within Bangkok and its perimeters. The quantity of delivering gas to the Daughter Stations also depends on the demand of gas from the Daughter stations. Gas distribution is a 24 hour operation.
Scan Inter (Public) Company Limited sees the importance of Natural gas operational centers for vehicles. As to ensure the efficiency and safety of logistics management, including accident prevention to ensure that no losses or damages on life and property, the Company has set safety standards as follows,
- Safety, occupational hygiene and environmental policies
- Prevent accidents from working; there must be no danger that threatens the lives of employees. Prevent any injuries along to defending the name and property of the Company.
- All employees must receive an annual medical health check. Any abnormalities caused by work must be cured.
- All processes of providing and purchasing of delivery vehicles and equipment must collaborate with the law, international standards and must have basic safety equipment at the trailer of the gas distribution truck. Safety equipment must be installed with the trucks while tire usage must conform to the gas distribution truck standards of PTT.
- Employees must pass a training session when beginning or while still in the first period of working. Training also includes during work, truck driver achievement management, and finding the true reason of resignation of truck driver positions.
- Zero Accident Policy
- A risk assessment upon all distribution routes must be done. A Journey Management Plan (JMP) must also be done.
- A real time In Vehicle Monitoring System (IVMS) must be installed with all working distribution trucks.
- A strict prohibition of smoking applies to all truck drivers and truck driver helpers within the Company’s vehicle and the working space of the Company.
- Truck drivers must strictly follow speed rules and regulations. The speed of not higher than 60 kilometers/hour must be applied, along to following all laws.
- Working, driving and resting policies
- Working, driving and resting hours are as the law allows and follows the gas product distribution policy of PTT.
- Mobile phone and communicative equipment usage while working policies
- Drivers are prohibited from using mobile phones while driving, except for the connection of Bluetooth equipment of having the driver’s helper take the call instead, or parking the vehicle in a safe place.
- Drugs and alcohol policies
- No alcohol levels or drug substances or any medicine that affect the response reflects while working should be detected.
- Safety belt policies
- All drivers and helpers must wear their safety belts throughout the whole trip. The safety belt used must be the 3 – Point Configuration type which pulls back and automatically stops movements in the case of accidents.
- Ceasing work in unsafe situations policy
- Employees have the right to cease working in situations that is considered as unsafe e.g. tiredness, unreadiness of their bodies, pains or injuries without being reprimanded. An investigation on the unsafely situation must be carried out to find the reason or cause to ensure that no problems may repeatedly occur in the future.
The Company has cooperated with the Bangphasi Ladies Agricultural Cooperation as the project supporter and has been chosen to operate and distribute electricity of 5 generated megawatts at the Bangphasi sub district, Banglane district, Nakornpathom province under the project of generating electricity from ground fixed solar cells. As for governmental sectors and agricultural cooperation, at the present is still under construction and is anticipated to start commercially distributing electricity within December 2016.
CBG is an energy product which results from the produce of the plant, such as the water treatment used in agriculture. CBG in this case is Biogas that comes from separating gases that is not fuel, leaving out the compound parts that contain methane. The separated Biogas has the same properties as natural gas that can be used in the industrial sector and logistics. This is to support the idea of using waste products in a beneficial way.